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Around the year 500 CE, the roots of the Srivijayan empire began to develop around present-day Palembang, Sumatra.The Kedukan Bukit inscription (683 CE), discovered on the banks of the Tatang River, near Karanganyar site, mentioned that the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa and his retinue.By that time, Srivijayan Mandala seems to be consists of the federation or an alliance of city-states, spanned from Java to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula, connected with trade connection cemented with political allegiance.By that time Srivijayan trading centers remains in Palembang, and to further extent also includes ports of Jambi, Kedah and Chaiya; while its political, religious and ceremonial center was established in Central Java.Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and that the Chaiya District in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, was the centre of Srivijaya.The city of Chaiya's name may be derived from the Malay name "Cahaya" which means "light" or "radiance".The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

The Srivijayan historiography was acquired, composed and established from two main sources: the Chinese historical accounts and the Southeast Asian stone inscriptions that have been discovered and deciphered in the region.An aerial photograph taken in 1984 near Palembang (in what is now Sriwijaya Kingdom Archaeological Park) revealed the remnants of ancient man-made canals, moats, ponds, and artificial islands, suggesting the location of Srivijaya's urban centre.Several artefacts such as fragments of inscriptions, Buddhist statues, beads, pottery and Chinese ceramics were found, confirming that the area had, at one time, dense human habitation.; literally: "Giant Harbour", this is probably a testament of its history as once a great port.It mentions that Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa came from Minanga Tamwan.The exact location of Minanga Tamwan is still a subject of discussion.

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